"Strategies and Ethics of Hybrid Warfare in the Gulf:
Drones, Cyberwar and AI in the High-Stakes Struggle
between Iran and Saudi Arabia"

About the Project

Published in February 2021

The competition between Saudi Arabia and Iran is being fought across multiple conventional and high-tech platforms, turning the Gulf into a unique strategic theatre of hybrid warfare. This research raises key questions about the nature of hybrid war strategies. Issues of focus incorporate the domestic implications for Iran and Saudi Arabia in utilising cyberwarfare, drones, and AI-driven techniques, and the dangers of information – and weapons – sharing with proxies; the positioning and character of leadership, ideology, and external pressures; the impacts of regional and international relationships; and ethical considerations in relation to the role of AI in hybrid conflict situations, a primary area of concern for the British government.

Electronic Version

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